Which historical factors have shaped Jordanian national identity? The following three historical factors are crucial. First of all, from the 1950s through the 1960s, Jordan was confronted with the Arab-nationalist call for Arab unity, such as Nasirism in Egypt and Ba'thism in Syria and Iraq. Jordan committed herself to the Arab state-system and attempted to establish and maintain cooperative relations among Arab countries without abandoning her own sovereignty. Second, as a result of the Israeli occupation of the West Bank of the Jordan River after the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, Jordan faced the Palestinian problem and its domestic consequences, i.e., the clash between the PLO and the Jordanian regime. And third, from the late 1980s, Jordan has undertaken the process of democratization, and so far two elections have been held.