Islamic Area Studies NEWSLETTER 1


Contents of Issue No. 1

1) An Invitation to Islamic Area Studies, Project Leader: SATO Tsugitaka
2) Research Units
3) International Cooperation
4) Individual Research Group Plans
5) List of Researchers

Japanese names in this document and in the Project in general will be written using surnames first, written in capital letters followed by given names.

An Invitation to Islamic Area Studies

Project Leader: SATO Tsugitaka (The University of Tokyo)

The Japanese Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture commissioned this area study entitled Islamic Area Studies to collect information and create a computerized information system in order to better our understanding of the Islamic world. Beginning in April 1997, it will continue for five years, until the spring of 2002. Herein, I would like to explain the aims, content and basic plan of action of the project and express my hope that many people will participate actively in it.

Research Aims

This project aims to create a new field which we call "Islamic Area Studies". Its specific objectives are threefold.

(a) Development of new methods in Islamic Area Studies
The term "Islamic World" is often used to refer only to the regions of the Middle East; however, we know well that Islam as a religion and a civilization has spread beyond the Middle East to Central and Southeast Asia in the east, the Balkans and Africa in the west. Furthermore, Muslims now form important social groups within contemporary Western societies, as well as in China and Japan. This means that regions with close ties to Islam now encompass the world.
When examining communities where Muslims reside, we find both symbiotic relationships with other peoples and serious problems, such as ethnic strife, interregional conflict, population explosion, and destruction of the environment. For example, Muslims are today deeply involved in the Bosnian conflict, the civil war in Afghanistan, "the new ethnic question" in the European Union, and the struggle for human rights in the United States. Therefore, we may say that social, political and economic trends in the Islamic world will definitely determine the development of world civilization in the twenty-first century, making it necessary for non-Muslim peoples to take positive steps in better understanding Islamic history, ideas and contemporary situation.

(b) Development of a computerized information system suitable for Islamic Area Studies. Up until now, Islamic Studies have not always made sufficient use of computers, chiefly because of the many character systems involved and because there was little connection between this kind of research and the applicable technical fields. This Project plans to continue the development of databases in languages which use non-Roman characters such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu and Malay and develop methods to apply computer technology to Area Studies.

(c) Assisting Young Researchers
In recent times the rapid development of Islamic Studies in Japan has been quite remarkable, however on a global scale the shortage of researchers and accumulated research is undeniable. Considering the importance of the Islamic world will have in the twenty-first century, I feel it is necessary to do all we can to assist the next generation of young researchers and support their participation in an international network

Basic Plan of Implementation

As mentioned before, the areas covered by Islamic Area Studies are not limited to the Middle East and should be flexibly determined based on the character of the themes studied. Although we must remember that there are many ways to view Area Studies, it is generally agreed that it is the synthesis of the results of basic research in various disciplines such as Political Science, Economics, Social Studies, Anthropology, History, Geography, Religious Studies, Literature, Linguistics, International Relations, and Urban Engineering.

While realizing that one of the objectives of Area Studies is the understanding of the contemporary world, I believe that it is better to initially conduct research within the various disciplines and then synthesize them. The notion that the deciphering of one scroll of ancient writing is closely connected to the understanding of the civilization of the area is important. What is demanded of the six research units, of the thirteen smaller groups under them, and of the Project as a whole is the active effort to synthesize research from various disciplines.

Research conducted in this project is open to researchers and specialists both in Japan and all over the world. Each group is made up of five or six members (rotating every few years), but the research will not be carried out by these members alone. The group members are responsible for bringing in researchers other than group members, especially younger researchers to participate in the planning and conducting of research. We are hoping that those with an interest in this project will actively plan, conduct and present the results of their research.

The success of this project will be closely tied to having a wide range of researchers and specialists freely participate in the project. We hope that those interested will frequently contact the Project Management Unit, the main research units and the research groups by e-mail, fax, letters and so on. The purpose of the Islamic Area Studies Project is, with the cooperation of many researchers from both within the Project and outside of it, to create a substantive body of knowledge toward the understanding of the Islamic world.

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2) Research Units

Unit 1 / Unit 2 / Unit 3 / Unit 4 / Unit 5 / Unit 6

Project Management Unit

Leader: SATO Tsugitaka
Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology, The University of Tokyo
Contact Point:
Islamic Area Studies Project Management Unit Office
The University of Tokyo
Bungakubu Annexe
7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113
Tel: 81-3-5684-3285, Fax: 81-3-5684-3279

Research Unit 1
Thought and Politics in the Islamic World

Leader: TAKESHITA Masataka
Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology, The University of Tokyo
Contact Point:
Islamic Area Studies Project Management Unit Office
The University of Tokyo
Bungakubu Annexe
7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113
Tel: 81-3-5684-3285, Fax: 81-3-5684-3279

A. Contemporary Thought in the Islamic World
B. Muslim Problems in International Relations
C. State and Law in the Islamic World

Research Unit 2
Society and Economy in the Islamic World

Leader: MURAI Yoshinori
Institute of Asian Cultures, Sophia University
Contact Point:
Islamic Area Studies Research Office
Institute of Asian Cultures, Sophia University
7-1 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102
Tel: 81-3-3238-3162; 81-3-3238-3697 (Institute of Asian Cultures)
Fax: 81-3-3238-3690
e-mail: h-ono/

A. Islam and Social Development
B. Economics and the Contemporary Islamic World
C. Research Trends in Islamic Area Studies

Research Unit 3
Nations, Regions and Islam

Leader: MATSUBARA Masatake
The Japan Center for Area Studies, National Museum of Ethnology
Contact Point:
The Japan Center for Area Studies, National Museum of Ethnology
10-1 Senri Banpakukoen, Suita-shi 565
Tel: 81-6-878-8343 Fax: 81-6-878-8353

A. Nation States and Muslim Identities
B. Contemporary Muslims and Cultural Conflicts
C. Source Materials for the Study of the Contemporary Muslim World

Research Unit 4
Geographic Information Systems for Islamic Area Studies

Leader: OKABE Atsuyuki
Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo
Contact Point:
Okabe/Asami Lab.
Department of Urban Engineering
Graduate School of Engineering
The University of Tokyo
7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113
Tel: 81-3-3812-2111 (ext. 6226) Fax 81-3-5800-6965

Research Unit 5
Islamic History and Culture

Leader: GOTO Akira
Institute of Oriental Culture, The University of Tokyo
Contact Point:
Institute of Oriental Culture
The University of Tokyo
7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113
Tel: 81-3-3815-9565, Fax: 81-3-3815-9565

A. Muslims in Everyday Life
B. Islamic Civilization in Human History

Research Unit 6
Source Materials for the Study of Islamic Civilization

Leader: NAGATA Yuzo
The Toyo Bunko (The Oriental Library)
Contact Point:
Islamic Area Studies Office
The Toyo Bunko (The Oriental Library)
2-28-21 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113
Tel: 81-3-3942-0121, Fax: 81-3-3942-0258

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3) International Cooperation

I. Plan for Regular International Exchanges

a. Foreign researchers in related fields will be invited to Japan to hold research seminars and give lectures.

b. Japanese and foreign researchers will actively pursue joint research.

c. The Japan Society for the Promotion of Science will select foreign researchers who have just been awarded their doctorates and grant fellowships to assist them in their research in Japan.

II. International Conferences

The international conferences which the Project Management Unit has already decided to sponsor are listed below.

a. First International Symposium (Medium Scale)
Dates: Friday, October 8, 1999 to Sunday, October 10, 1999 (3 days)
Location: Kyoto International Conference Hall

b. The 19th International Congress of Historical Sciences
Date: August 6-13, 2000
Location: Oslo, NORWAY
Theme: Muslim Societies over the Centuries
We are planning to present one of the sessions in the Congress.

c. Second International Symposium (Large Scale)
Date: Fall or winter of 2001
Location: The University of Tokyo

III. Dissemination of Announcements and Results of Research

a. The project will mainly use the internet for the dissemination of information and announcements. Researchers and research organizations will be sent information directly using e-mail. In addition, a home page has been constructed and both information which needs to be posted for long periods of time and the results of research will be posted there. Researchers for whom it is difficult or impossible to use e-mail will be kept informed by alternative methods such as by mail or fax.

b. The goal is for Japanese and foreign researchers in Islamic Area Studies to maintain contact using the internet and for research organizations and researchers to exchange information. For this reason, the information will be provided in both English and Japanese.

c. Persons interested in receiving information by e-mail should contact the office at the address below. Anyone interested in our research is eligible to receive this information. Please contact us at:

d. The home page is managed by the Project Management Unit and the six research units and will be posted in Japanese and English.
The home page of the Project Management Unit ( includes What's New?, Research in Progress, Schedule and WWW Links.
The home page of each group (the URLs are listed in Section 2: Research Units and may be accessed through the Project Management Unit home page above) will include Plans for Research, Schedule of Activities, and Research Reports etc.

e. The following publications will be issued in order to announce and preserve the results of the research. Any research organizations or researcher, interested in this Project should contact the office. (There is a charge for Publication D)

A. Newsletter: (Japanese and English) Announces the research plans for each year (Published yearly)

B. Working Paper Series: (published occasionally in both Japanese and English) In booklet form. Will include papers based on reports of research seminars.

C. Data Book Series: (Published occasionally) Published in booklet form or as a CD-ROM and including bibliographical work and graphical information.

D. IAS Series: Published in book form in both Japanese and English which may be used over a long period and containing the results of the Project. We will cooperate with a publishing company so as to be able to market this series.

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4) Individual Research Group Plans

Unit 1 / Unit 2 / Unit 3 / Unit 4 / Unit 5 / Unit 6

Project Management Unit
Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology, The University of Tokyo

While the Project will be conducted centering on the main activities of the six research units, it must also form a single unified study. In order to achieve this, the Project Management Unit will undertake to organize the following activities and manage the research units as follows:

a) Organization of research plans (especially cooperative planning and international exchange which involves more than one unit)

b) Acting as a center for announcements (Management of the home page, announcement of the results of research through publications)

c) An office for Islamic Area Studies at the Hongo Campus of the University of Tokyo (Bungakubu Annexe) has been established for the management of the business of the Project Management Unit. Offices, joint research facilities and research facilities for foreign researchers have been set up there.

d) Conducting of pilot research, and initialization and support of new research plans which deal with multiple subjects beyond the framework of the subject of each individual research unit. In 1997, International joint research on the Ottoman Temettuat Registers (organizer: HAYASHI Kayoko) is in progress.

e) Three foreign researchers, Abdeljelil Temimi (Tunisia) Specialist in the history of Arabic peoples under the Ottoman Regime, R. Stephen Humphreys (USA, UC Santa Barbara) Specialist in Arabic History and Timur Kocao"lu (Turkey, Koch University, Istanbul) Specialist in Central Asian Studies have been invited to Japan in 1997 in line with the aims of the Project.


Research Unit 1: Thought and Politics in the Islamic World
Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology, The University of Tokyo

The Islamic world has developed along with the Christian world as an independent civilization. Though it was forced into submission by the West in the modern period, it has regained its political independence. There have been wars, regional conflicts, tensions and dangers in the Islamic world which have been closely related to global trends. During this period, the Islamic world has experimented with many forms of and degrees of modernization (westernization).

Of these trends, one phenomenon which has become apparent in the past twenty years is that the Islamic world has been clearly asserting its individuality. This has manifested itself as a confrontation between a reassertion of traditional Islamic values and Western-style modernization which produces many frictions and tensions. The importance of the study of thought in the Islamic world is that it gives us ideas on how we should respond to these trends.

Due to an interest in the above issues, Research Unit 1 has made the following three groups with the common theme of thought and politics in the Islamic world.

(a) Contemporary Thought in the Islamic World (Group Leader: KOSUGI Yasushi)
(b) Muslim Problems in International Relations (Group Leader: IGARASHI Takeshi)
(c) State and Law in the Islamic World (Group Leader: SUZUKI Tadashi)

Group A: Contemporary Thought in the Islamic World will gain a perspective on the totality of Islamic thought, and will investigate Islamic social and political thought as a dynamic entity which has shown remarkable development particularly from the nineteenth century to the present.

Group B: Muslim Problems in International Relations will examine the special characteristics of international relations in the Islamic world as compared to those in the non-Islamic world and examine the significance of Islamic international relations above and beyond simple international relations and look for points of similarity with other regions.

Group C: State and Law in the Islamic World will investigate the Islamic political units (states), the rules they use in relating to each other (laws) and how these rules have been implemented historically. In addition, Muhammad Shukri Saleh of Malaysia will be invited to Japan to conduct joint research on politics and economics in the Islamic world.

Message from the Unit Leader:
Unit Leader: TAKESHITA Masataka (The University of Tokyo)

When looking at the overall plan of research for this Islamic Area Studies Project, two points impress me as very important. The first is that this is a five-year, long range project and it is scheduled to continue until 2002. This project must be a summary of the twentieth century as well as a springboard to the twenty-first century.
The second important point is to make use of computer networks to the greatest extent possible. Younger researchers use computers in their research as a matter of course. I myself do not use computers, but in these five years I hope to master how to use them for research. The thing that makes me hesitate to use computers is that unlike a television or car, they are not complete, mature products. They are still in the evolution and development stage and it is necessary to be careful when buying them. For example, eight years ago I made the mistake of buying a computer in America and by the time I was able to use it well, it had become obsolete and unusable. However, there is no doubt that computers will be important in the twenty-first century. Meetings in 2002 may not require the physical presence of the participants because they will probably be held using internet video-telephones.
However, although the information revolution continues to make progress in Europe, America and Japan, the Middle East has remained far from this revolutionary wave. Am I the only one who feels that the gap is widening? Information from Europe and America can be accessed from Japan in real time, but information from the Middle East must be gotten through connections and word of mouth. This is why through this project I hope to invite as many researchers from countries in the Middle East in order to form a human network.

Message from the Group Leader:
Research Group 1-A: Contemporary Thought in the Islamic World
Group Leader: KOSUGI Yasushi (International University)

Our group has set up a Forum on Flexible Thinking in order to create an appropriate atmosphere to study thought. Such a forum will provide the opportunity for us to consider and exchange ideas flexibly.
Our specific objectives are threefold:

1) to develop research on Islamic thought in Japan
2) to establish an open and flexible place for joint research
3) to encourage the next generation of researchers and achieve results which will be helpful to the next generation.

Our methods for achieving these objectives are willing and open-minded discussion, an open-door policy of free exchange, and bridge-building between eras and generations.
I am tempted to say that the object of the research is to "Broaden our horizons and deepen our knowledge" but perhaps that is too abstract. Our five concrete objectives are:

1) to gain an understanding of the totality of contemporary Islamic thought
2) to get a clear picture of contemporary Islamic thinkers
3) to organize theoretical arguments and focal points of contemporary Islamic thought in general and specific categories
4) to build a bridge between traditional (classic) Islamic knowledge and contemporary thought and
5) to build a bridge between contemporary thought and Islamic thought on a global scale.

Though these are very difficult objectives, we would like to begin this historically large-scale project with high aspirations.

We would like to take "thought", the object of our study to have a broader meaning than is generally associated with it so as to have it include literature etc. "Contemporary" is generally taken to mean the twentieth century, although the nineteenth century is sometimes included as historical background. Our concern for building bridges between eras and generations that I mentioned above includes being aware of connections and comparisons to the classics. In addition, we define Islamic thought broadly to include Muslim thinkers on topics both related to and unrelated to Islam and non-Muslim thinkers on topics related to Islam.

We will, of course, put effort into studying the thought itself. However, because the Project sees the subjects of its research as dynamic entities, we will also seriously study the conditions and dynamic relationships between thought and society. In addition, the theme of Research Unit 1 is "Thought and Politics", therefore we will pay careful attention to political thought and the relationship between thought and politics.

Although we would like to do many unique things, our research methods include only very traditional methods such as reading books and thinking, traveling abroad to conduct studies and meeting together and discussing. The work that we conduct cooperatively is centered around research seminars. There are two types of these research seminars. They are informational seminars and book review seminars. We would like to use the following five patterns.

(a) Research seminars on theories and points of contention (by subject), called Theoretical Point Seminars
(b) Research seminars on thinkers (by thinker), called Thinker Seminars
(c) Research seminars on the dynamism between thoughts and regions (by region/country), called Region Seminars
(d) Research seminars on book reviews (Japanese and Foreign books), called Book Review Seminars
(e) Research seminars on original texts (Philosophical writings and research texts written in the language of the region), called Original Text Seminars

The above is the framework for group activities and does not include the content of the seminars. We hope to have everyone's participation in creating the content. We hope to make it easy for everyone to be active in these seminars, so please don't hesitate to participate.

Message from the Group Leader:
Research Group 1-B: Muslim Problems in International Relations
Group Leader: IGARASHI Takeshi (The University of Tokyo)

Muslim problems in international relations has been a theme which has received much attention in the field of post cold war international relations since the publication of The Clash of Civilizations by Samuel P. Huntington. The aim of this group is to consider this theme focusing on the following three issues, giving close attention to Huntington's view of civilization, but not being limited to it.

The first is the relationship between the Middle East and other regions. The Gulf War has shown that the Middle East, and the Gulf area in particular, as a major supplier of petroleum must deepen its relationships with other regions. This is also connected to the foreign policies of regions which are still trying to free themselves from imperialist rule. The role Islam plays in the international relations of this region is also an important issue.

The second issue is the international relations within the Middle East Region. Needless to say, the existence of Israel in this region makes international relations take on some characteristics of a religious war. Talks to preserve peace in the Middle East seem to be making progress and the role that Israel will play in these negotiations is a subject of research. In addition, the large economic gap between oil producing countries and non-oil producing countries and the role of Islam in the international relations between Islamic countries are issues which must be given serious consideration.

The third issue is the theory of international politics. It is the generally accepted theory that international politics is the relationship between homogeneous entities known as nation states. However, it is questionable whether the relationship between Islamic states and other countries can be described as a relationship between homogeneous entities. Because relationships between heterogeneous states and the character and structure of such international relations are actually seen as different from the theoretical model, a need to adjust the model presents itself.

We hope to continue interdisciplinary discussions concerning Area Studies and the theory of international politics from these viewpoints.

Message from the Group Leader:
Research Group 1-C: State and Law in the Islamic World
Acting Group Leader: NAGASAWA Eiji (The University of Tokyo)

Our goal and the main subject of Research Unit 1 is to conduct joint research to comprehensively understand both the development of Islamic ideals and their sociopolitical repercussions. Our research must necessarily be conducted in close contact with that being done by Group A on thought and by Group B on international relations. The issues involving the ideas and actual conditions referred to above are directly tied to the research on thought conducted by Group A, and issues related to Islam and contemporary international relations will be examined by Group B. Both types of issues are very important to states which try to uphold the ideals of Islam through the application of Islamic law, which is the sphere being studied by Group C. In other words, the main tasks of Group C are to examine the issue of how the form and function of states as political units has developed since the early stages of Islamic history and clarify the makeup of criteria which define the relationships of people both within and outside of these countries.

In this first year of research, wherein we will be finding issues to do research on, we plan to deal with problems related to the theory and custom of Islamic law with the theme of "The Structure of Law in Islamic Society". In the second year we plan to systematically analyze the structure of typical states in the history of the Islamic world up to the Ottoman Empire with the theme of "Political Units in the Islamic World". In the third year, we will use the theme of "State and Law in the Islamic World" and clarify them through comparison with the characteristics of states and law in other civilizations such as those found in East Asia and Western Europe. Based on the results of this research, in the fourth year we will consider how the characteristics of these states and laws in the Islamic world influence modern issues. Finally, in the fifth and final year, our goal is to compile our results through joint research with the other groups.


Research Unit 2: Society and Economy in the Islamic World
Institute of Asian Cultures, Sophia University

What are the issues?

After World War II, the economic development of developing countries has been the subject of interest all over the world, but the focus was mainly centered on investment and technical assistance to developing regions from developed countries. However, the economic gap known as the North-South problem has not been corrected and the global division of labor and the chronic debt problems of developing countries have become important issues. Under these conditions, inter-Muslim independent economic mechanisms and the economic development of the South-East Asian countries are beginning to clearly reveal the limits of seeing the problem of underdevelopment, as simply a quantitative difference and that there are limits to the effectiveness of the application of linear, western-style theories of development to developing countries.

Because economic development emphasizes market principles, the "civil society" (both in its dynamics, organizations and communities) which stands between individuals and the state was made light of and the coexistence of people and nature was also ignored. The causes of alienation in human relationships in the modern world, environmental destruction and regional wars are also closely related to economic development. The Muslim revival movement and the movements for civil rights and human rights which continue to gain momentum among Muslims have harshly criticized this theory.

Research Themes
This unit will form three groups (A, B and C) and study the above issues using the three themes of social development, economic development and analysis of trends in research.

Group A (Islam and Social Development) will research themes related to Islamic areas such as education, women, human rights, poverty, welfare, medical treatment, democracy, urban society, ethnicity and environmental problems, urbanization and volunteerism which have been ignored or neglected due to economic development and the contradictions brought on by economic development.

Group B (Economics and the Contemporary Islamic World) will take another look at the western-style economic development process which placed great importance on market principles and increasing production and examine the economic development which is unique to Islamic areas. Specifically, the subjects of our research will be issues such as carrying the burden of development, industrial organization, labor problems, the concept of land integration, commerce and transportation networks, resource development and environmental problems, ODA and NGOs.

In recognition of the fact that Islamic civilization and Muslim society play an important role in regions and international society, Group C (Research Trends in Islamic Area Studies) will analyze the newest trends in Islam from a variety of points of view such as Islamic thought and doctrine, contemporary political and social systems, and postmodernism and Islam. It is also the duty of Group C to remain in close contact with foreign researchers and research organizations.

The 1997 Research Plan
Group A will be led by MIZUSHIMA Tsukasa (Tokyo University of Foreign Studies), Group B will be led by KIMURA Yoshihiro (Tohoku University) and Group C will be led by KISAICHI Masatoshi (Sophia University). All of the groups will cooperate very closely in conducting their research activities.

From July, research seminars will be conducted once every two months. In addition, foreign researchers will be invited to Japan often. Fayuan Gao (University of Yunnan in China; specialist in the history of southwestern China), Ulke Arbogan (Istanbul University in Turkey; specialist in International Relations) and Paul Luft (University of Manchester in Britain; specialist in modern Iranian history) are scheduled to come to Japan.

In addition to this, fieldwork in foreign countries will be conducted and the results of the latest research is to be posted on Group 2's home page as they are received.

Message from the Group Leader:
Research Group 2-A: Islam and Social Development

Group Leader: MIZUSHIMA Tsukasa (Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)

The twenty-first century will be a time when information networks are expanding and information can be accessed or transmitted from the far corners of the earth. It will also be a time when the wave of material development will reach all points on the globe, an age where problems such as human rights, poverty, welfare, gender, medical care, ethnicity and the environment will become more important. People must respond in some way to the global phenomenon of development, the universal nature of which creates a commonality among peoples. Movements and institutions are built based on this commonality. In fact, in many regions of Asia and Africa a large number of movements, institutions and groups which are trying to change the structure of society on the level of the relationship between the individual and the state (the outside world) have been formed or seem to be in the process of being formed locally.

I would like in particular to draw attention to the fact that people who jointly own a certain area build up their personal relationships one by one in order to form closer relationships. This is a process which occurs on the local level. Because most of these groups act at a very local level, this development is not always universal, and, further, unique ideas may sometimes be formed at their core, giving rise to special traditions which may be discovered, created and given new life. I hope that within this variety and diversity, we can find a common principle that allows all people to work together in the twenty-first century.

It is with this hope that I would like to conduct multiple case studies for analysis and comparison. These case studies will investigate movements, groups, and societies with special characteristics in every area and in all periods in Asia and Africa which are formed, promoted or destroyed by ideas or mutual principles which may be distinctive to the area. In addition, while carrying out this work, I would like to further clarify the roles and meanings of all aspects of Islam in local societies and view them critically.

Message from the Group Leader:
Research Group 2-B: Economics and the Contemporary Islamic World
Group Leader: KIMURA Yoshihiro (Tohoku University)

As one who has committed himself to this project from the field of social sciences, I feel the need to reconfirm the basic principles of Area Studies. The following points go without saying, but I would like to place special emphasis on them.

The first point concerns the purpose of Islamic Area Studies. This field, as seen from the point of view of those living in the regions, is foreigners doing research on the society and culture of their country and region. Naturally they will ask, "Why are you doing this research? What good will it do?" The importance of simple questions like these has increased over the past quarter of a century. Higher education has become more common in these regions, the number of researchers has increased rapidly and the amount of research which has accumulated has increased. The people in these regions themselves are conducting research on their own countries on and actually creating systems to conduct research on and preserve their own cultures. The question is how foreigners other than those with a connection to the area such as the late Professor A. Hourani whose family immigrated from southern Lebanon to Britain will approach the subject. However, perhaps it is not necessary to explain one's motivating interests concerning a particular type of research to others.

The second point is how we should go about conducting research and how and where the results of the research can make a contribution. The research facilities are located in Japan, so the question will be asked how valuable the project will be for Japanese people, and for those in the areas which are the subject of the research. The claim that we are doing research for the sake of research is not likely to be accepted either in Japan or abroad. I do not mean to suggest that all research must have a practical application, but it is difficult for research to be accepted if it is too different from the demands of the times.

The third point is the way in which the research is carried out. We will inevitably do joint research related to the above two points with researchers in the areas to be researched. If we can agree on a purpose and content for this research, we will eventually have to decide on both the methodology and the results. Recently, we have had many research seminars where we simply invite foreign researchers to Japan to talk about their work. We must remember that if we cannot produce research that is actually cooperative and have the results returned to the area of study, for the foreign researchers, their visit to Japan becomes nothing more than a "business trip" or mere tourism.

At any rate, in beginning a new type of Islamic Area Studies, I feel the need to raise the level of research in Japan and confirm important points concerning the purpose and content of the research.

Message from the Group Leader:
Research Group 2-C: Research Trends in Islamic Area Studies
Group Leader: KISAICHI Masatoshi (Sophia University)
"Persons involved in the Project: Personal Reflections and Organizational Duties"

My involvement with this major project spanning the twentieth and twenty-first centuries has given me the opportunity to recall the conditions under which I, as a student, decided to go into Islamic Area Studies a quarter of a century ago. At that time, students and young people were speaking out against the political system and social order of the world in response to the Biafran refugee problem and the Vietnam War. There is no doubt that the reason that I chose the colonial history of Algeria as a topic for my research is that I was influenced by the global events of the time. Looking back now, we can see that 1970 was the beginning of a period when modernism was rejected and we saw the resurgence of not only Islam, but of many other religions as well.

This Project has the high aim of carving out a new plateau for Area Studies. Though scholarly research must be an intellectual pursuit, those involved must always be aware of the morality of their research if Area Studies is to achieve the same level of awareness of others and the same political pragmatism as other fields. Nevertheless, I cannot help feeling that there must be some objections to this idea.

This awareness, arrived at by many of the researchers working a quarter of a century ago, is no longer part of the research that I have been involved with. There is very little awareness of others or morality to be found in the motives or results of research. In comparison with a quarter century ago, I do not believe that the problems of conflicts and refugees, human rights and hunger have become any less serious.

All of us involved with this Project must be constantly concerned to remain always conscious of the relationship between Area Studies and an awareness of others. As researchers we should each question our own level of awareness as we conduct our research. We need to maintain a high intellectual level and be conscious of the morality of our results. Finally, we must all learn how to bring about peaceful coexistence to the society and international relations of the twenty-first century.


Research Unit 3: Nations, Regions and Islam
The Japan Center for Area Studies, National Museum of Ethnology

Research Goals
Today, there are many problems related to nations and ethnic groups in every region of the world. Ethnic issues arise not only within the borders of countries, but they can also reach an international scale. Whether they are local or global, it is clear that the causes of these problems are related to the structure and character of the region in question. We are promoting research with the assumption that it is impossible for humans to live together in peace without solving these ethnic issues.

The purpose of this research is to clarify the inter-relationship between the ethnic issues which occur in the Islamic world and the characteristics of the area. Specifically, the issues we will address are as follows.

a. The roles of education and the mass media in the formation of Muslim identity as connected with national integration in Islamic countries.

b. Mutual connections between coexistence and conflicts among Muslim majorities and non-Muslim religious minorities.

c. Cultural friction in the non-Muslim world (e.g. the EU, North America, China, Russia and Japan) where Muslims live as a minority, as a small segment of the population or as migrant workers.

d. The variety of women's (gender) issues in the Islamic world.

e. Mutual connections between the radicalizing Islamic revival movement and ethnic, national and regional conflicts.

In order to clarify and understand the above issues, it is necessary to survey and analyze the latest trends in the Islamic world. Therefore, one of the goals of this research is to create a system where information on the Islamic world may be obtained instantly through the use of electronic media. Another goal is to gather systematically reference materials related to the theme of the research.

Research Plan
The research will be conducted by the following 3 groups. All of them will include the four key words: education, mass media, minorities and women (gender).

Group A: Nation States and Muslim Identities (Group Leader: KATO Hiroshi)
We will investigate the specific process by which the main ideologies and images used in the formation of national integration and minority identity were produced. Specifically, we plan to create a data base including the educational curricula for elementary, middle and high school education of each area.

Group B: Contemporary Muslims and Cultural Conflicts (Group Leader: YAMAUCHI Masayuki)
We will conduct research on cultural friction in the special political, economic and social environments and the ideologies and images produced therein. We will first conduct case studies in each area and after coming to an understanding of the special characteristics of the regions, we will conduct comparative studies.

Group C: Source Materials for the Study of the Contemporary Muslim World (Group Leader: USUKI Akira)
We will travel abroad to collect reference materials related to Islamic studies, including those areas being researched by Group A and Group B. We will collect printed materials such as books, maps, newspapers, magazines, pamphlets and microfilm; magnetically stored materials such as CD-ROMs; graphical materials such as video tapes and photographs which are difficult to obtain through the normal sales channels. We will create a data base including all of the materials gathered and use our home page to exchange information and make information available.

If you have any information on or requests for information that we should gather related to the contemporary Islamic world, please contact the Japan Center for Area Studies. The materials gathered may be viewed and used in the Japan Center for Area Studies for the duration of this Project.

Plan for 1997
I. Research Seminars
A seminar and group meetings for Research Unit 3 will be held on Saturday, December 13, 1997 at the Japan Center for Area Studies
Each group will have three or four meetings.

II. Visiting Researchers from Abroad
Asef Bayat, The American University in Cairo, Sociology
¤skender Pala, Mimar Sinan University (Istanbul), Turkish Literature
Selim ¤lkin, Statistical, Economic and Social Research and Training Centre for Islamic Countries (Ankara), Socio-Economic History of Turkey
Sammy Smooha, Haifa University (Israel), Sociology
Mohammad Afifi, Cairo University, Study on the non-Muslim Minority in Egypt

III. Personnel to be Sent Abroad
The following persons will be sent to the countries indicated to gather materials:
Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore (AKAMINE Jun)
China (WUNG Ke)
Egypt (KATO Hiroshi)
Philippines (KAWASHIMA Midori)
Morocco, Spain (YAMAUCHI Masayuki)

Message from the Group Leader:
Research Group 3-A: Nation States and Muslim Identities
Group Leader: KATO Hiroshi (Hitotsubashi University)

The theme that our group was given to work on is "Nation States and Muslim Identities". Underlying the creation of this theme was the idea that in the Islamic world there is a great difference between nation states, which are political units, and the sense of belonging that the people have. The reason that the Muslim identity of these people has been emphasized so much is probably that the majority of people in the Islamic world are Muslim. However, depending on the period and the region, in some places and at some times Muslims have been a minority. Therefore, our theme is not simply issues concerning nation states and Muslim identity, it is to clarify the inter-relationship between nations as political units in the Islamic world and the consciousness of the people which reaches beyond borders whether the Muslims are in the majority or the minority.

In setting up these issues to research, we would like to gain a greater understanding of the symbols which are common to a group, in other words the means of production of ideologies, be them at the level of national government or the level of individual citizens. Specifically, we would like to investigate how the solidarity consciousness at the grass roots level of individual citizens and the concept of national integration at the country level are formed in the process of the production of symbols. In this, the three key words are education, mass media and networks. As long as these three key words are all used, the actual selection of research themes or issues is dependent on what issues the researchers are interested in. As for me, I am interested in women's issues, performing arts for the public (mainly cinema and theater), and minorities. I would like to begin research by organizing research seminars and workshops which include joint research with foreign researchers on these three themes. We will also conduct regular exchanges with other researchers.

Message from the Group Leader:
Research Group 3-B: Contemporary Muslims and Cultural Conflicts
Group Leader: YAMAUCHI Masayuki (The University of Tokyo)
"The Iranian Presidential Election and Contemporary Muslims and Cultural Conflicts"

The title of our group, "Contemporary Muslims and Cultural Conflicts" covers a wide range including Japan, Europe and America and the Islamic world which is centered on the Middle East. It includes not only well-known phenomena such as the Islamic movement (generally called Islamic Fundamentalism), but also cultural contact and conflict issues which are related to Islam. For example, the recent presidential election in Iran may be understood in the context of cultural contact and conflict with Japan, Europe and America.

There are many hurdles to be overcome for both countries before the U.S. lifts sanctions from Iran. The U.S. bears ill feelings toward Iran not for the simple reason that the Iranian government has called it "the Great Satan" or because of the hostage crisis. There is a more practical basis for the attitude toward Iran. There are suspicions that Iran has aided and abetted international terrorism in Europe and the Middle East, that they have harmed the peace process in the Middle East through the Arab Shiite groups, that they are conducting research on nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction and that they have a secret treaty of cooperation with North Korea. It can also be argued that this situation is related to cultural conflicts such as the status of Mr. Rushdie.

It is also important for us to discuss the difficulties faced by Khatami's administration in relationship to the political culture. Khatami cannot avoid the Keynesian philosophy of "big government" due to Khatami's policy of improving social security and welfare for the poor. However, among the realistic "liberals" who support Khatami, there are those who support "small government" and hope to improve Iran's relationship with Europe and America and desire more free competition and foreign capital. These realistic "liberals" supported Khatami as a counterbalance to the conservative religious political power lead by Nateq Nuri. The danger of Khatami, who has a weak power base, losing all support and becoming alienated cannot be denied. Khatami must make changes to give more internal freedom and make Iran more open to foreign countries in order to keep the support of young people and women who supported him because they can no longer stand "tyranny in the name of God". This is an important issue in political culture.

Cultural conflict on both national and international levels will become a major problem in the Islamic world. Here, I used the example of Iran, however we would like to take a broad approach including America, Europe, China and Japan. Thank you for your support.

Message from the Group Leader:
Research Group 3-C: Source Materials for the Study of the Contemporary Muslim World
Group Leader: USUKI Akira (The Japan Center for Area Studies)
"Area Studies as a Work of Art"

Whenever I am asked what Area Studies is, I resign myself to giving the inadequate answer that it is scholarly research on the design for redrawing the boundaries of an area. In other words, Area Studies is based on the passion for the area which each researcher hopes to redraw and is a field built on the overall concept of the region.

A question most often asked in Area Studies is, what is the relationship between Area Studies and its related disciplines? Therefore, I feel that Area Studies as a method of research, has often been defined as viewed from the points of view of individual disciplines such as Economics, Social Science, Geography, Anthropology, History and Ecology. Of course the opinion that Area Studies must be an interdisciplinary pursuit comes from this idea.

This is not to deny the importance of disciplines in Area Studies. Area Studies without disciplines would be like climbing a mountain without a map. Even if we can see the top of the mountain, it does not mean we are safe from disaster. Unfortunately, the present state of our Area Studies in Japan is that we are still arguing about how to make the map (methodology) and we have not yet decided which mountain we should climb. Each researcher is deciding on his or her own where he or she should climb. Even if we define the aim of Area Studies as "to understand a certain area", we come back to the problem of what an area is and what understanding constitutes. This is the problem of Area Studies and its related disciplines which is discussed above. As you can see, we fall into a tautology.

In this Project to which we have given the abbreviated name of Islamic Area Studies, we must continue to ask what is the basis for the definition of the Islamic area. If this definition of an area is to be understood merely as a function of geographical space, I do not feel it is necessary for us to bother claiming to have created another field and calling it Islamic Area Studies. If we insist on doing so, we must give a new framework which explains why what we are doing is new. We must explain why what we are doing is not Islamic Studies or Muslim Studies. The answer to this question must clearly emerge in the course of this Project.

The subject of my research is the area known as Palestine or Israel. Of course the issues investigated vary with the area studied. In conducting my research on the Palestine/Israel area, I hope to break the spell of the myths of the existing nation states. When we apply a new concept to an area, it is an opportunity to reconstruct our concepts of national borders.

TACHIMOTO Narufumi, a professor at Kyoto University says that in deciding how to compose the entirety of time and space of an area, an Area Studies researcher is like an artist and "work of Area Studies is not so different from a work of art." (TACHIMOTO Narufumi, Issues and Methods in Area Studies - Toward a Socio-cultural/Ecological Dynamics , Published in Japanese by Kyoto University Press, 1996, page 7). Good results can only be obtained through the creation of masterpieces by those participating in this Islamic Area Studies Project.


Research Unit 4: Geographic Information Systems for Islamic Area Studies Department of Urban Engineering, The University of Tokyo

The aims of this research unit are to conduct pioneering research which applies Geological Information Systems (GIS) as engineering technology to Islamic Area Studies to test the effectiveness of the application of GIS to the fields of Humanities and Social Sciences and to create a new field of spatial analysis for Islamic Area Studies. In previous spatial representation research in the Islamic Area, informational resources such as on-site surveys and observation, oral surveys and paper maps have been used. However, obtaining this information has high monetary and time costs and the level of reliability of the information obtained is unstable. Therefore, this research unit will attempt to solve these problems by digitizing spatial data obtained from on-site surveys and combining it with GIS and remote sensing data (RS). We hope that this joint research between engineers and researchers in Humanities and Social Sciences will make the effective application of GIS to Humanities and Social Sciences possible and will quantitatively clarify the special characteristics of the spatial structure of the Islamic area.

Two research groups will be formed based on the spatial scale involved. They will be called the "Global-Scale Spatial Analysis Group" and the "Local-Scale Spatial Analysis Group".

The Global-Scale Spatial Analysis Group will analyze the changes in the land cover patterns using chronological RS data in the Islamic area. We will select several areas with special climatic characteristics and obtain RS data at every level of resolution for these areas and change this data into land cover pattern data and process and analyze it using GIS. The method of analysis will include developing new spatial relative description methods and spacio-temporal statistical methods, analyzing of changes in land cover patterns and estimation and abstraction of factors causing changes in land cover patterns. This year, we will develop methods for abstraction of land cover patterns from RS and organize the basic data necessary for future studies. From next year we will develop resolution methods for land cover patterns and, at the same time obtain RS data.

The Local-Scale Spatial Analysis Group will analyze road patterns of traditional towns in selected cities in Turkey using GIS. In this study, the road patterns of the cities will be abstracted as a linear network, an index for the purpose of understanding the degree of resemblance of the patterns will be made, abstraction methods for the geometric center of the network will be made, the degree of congruence of the position of the Mosque which is the center of daily life and the center of the city will be considered and a model for the natural occurrence of road networks will be made. In addition, a comparative analysis of geometrical efficiency of Turkish residences, and the differences between residences and the structure of residential areas of different ethnic background and the changes in the structure of residences and cities of Turkey and other Islamic countries will be conducted. This year, we will organize spatial data which can be used for small-scale spatial analysis as digital information. Starting next year, we will consecutively develop a method of analysis of road networks and analyze the structure of residential space.

We hope to have the participation of researchers in fields other than engineering. We will conduct research by holding research seminars for each group. This year we plan to invite Ay©e Sema Kubat (Istanbul Technical University), an expert in the geometrical and cultural analysis of Turkish road networks.

Message from the Unit Leader:
Unit Leader: OKABE Atsuyuki (The University of Tokyo)

This research unit specializes in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Geographic Information Science (GIS). The research conducted for this Project involves attempting to adapt GIS to the field of Islamic Area Studies. I would be very gratified if through this research, we could conduct meaningful exchanges with researchers in Islamic Studies.

In order to conduct exchanges, we must have an understanding of the basic outline of each other's research. I imagine that GIS is a new term for many of my colleagues in Islamic Studies. Therefore, I would like to introduce you to some of the aspects of GIS which may be related to your research.

GIS (Geographic Information Systems) are systems which systematically process spatial data using a computer.

Here, spatial data are defined as natural, social, economic and cultural data associated with locations below, above or on the surface of the earth. This, of course includes a very wide range of data including all spatial data such as data from maps which we use every day, population data for each country in the Islamic area, agricultural production data, data on the amount of rainfall at monitored locations, and groundwater data. Because all phenomenon occur in space, all data on phenomena are included in spatial data. However, if the data are not associated with locations on the earth, for our purposes, we do not include them in spatial data.

A GIS is a system which efficiently processes these spatial data with a computer. This processing is carried out by several subsystems.

The first subsystem deals with the acquisition of spatial data. Due to recent developments in the information technology field, this area is rapidly advancing. Remote sensing data are obtained with satellites, field data are obtained with an electronic field book which is a portable GIS with GPS (Global Positioning System which allows you to know your location). We would like to make the portable GISs more practical for use in this Project and we are hoping that you will use them. In addition, I believe that we can digitize (with a scanner and a digitizer) paper maps. We can put these data on CD-ROMs to distribute maps and graphical information to a great many researchers. We hope that you will make use of these.

The second subsystem manages the spatial data and is the database portion of the system. Database software which uses text and numerical values such as Excel and Access has become very common. However, for spatial data it is necessary to manage the organization of topological relationships (for example, the spatial relationship where Iran borders Iraq) and this is very difficult. In this Project, we are thinking of creating a spatial database on cities in the Islamic world (perhaps in Turkey). Those researching these cities should feel free to make use of our database.

The third subsystem analyzes the spatial data. This subsystem analyzes spatial relationships such as the relationship between the distribution of Mosques and Christian churches and the relationship between the distribution of rivers and that of towns. With this system, many types of spatial data can be shown in the same space and it can be analyzed in many ways. In this Project, a wide area of the Islamic world and some cities will be chosen and we hope to develop new spatial and temporal analysis methods. Those who wish to qualitatively/statistically clarify the relationships between spatial factors should not hesitate to contact us.

The fourth subsystem displays and transmits the results of the analysis of spatial data. When the results of analysis are displayed on a map it is often possible to see things that would not be apparent otherwise. In addition, when data are displayed in three or four dimensions (using animation) it is possible to show the results in such a way that a layperson can easily understand. We plan to make an animation which shows the land cover patterns in the Islamic area in the past fifteen years.

I believe that the above gives a general picture of GIS, but we will explain the more specific points of GIS software (ARC/INFO) and the equipment used for GIS in explanatory seminars and practical seminars. We hope that you will all attend these seminars and use GIS.

In the next five years we will be adapting GIS technology to Islamic Area Studies. However, without your assistance in the form of teaching us about Islam, our research cannot be successful. I ask for your patience in answering our naive questions.


Research Unit 5: Islamic History and Culture
Institute of Oriental Culture, The University of Tokyo

In Research Unit 5, we will study Islamic history and culture from many points of view. Most of the researchers in our unit are historians and cultural anthropologists; thus the task of our unit is "joint research between historians and cultural anthropologists". However, the participants in this research are not limited to those narrowly defined as historians or anthropologists. All researchers have an interest in historical and anthropological issues within their fields. We hope to have the participation of many such people.

The following is the overall five-year plan for research shown by year.

1997 Define issues and make network for research
1998 Develop a theory of methodology
1999 Publish mid-term results of research
2000 New directions in research
2001 Finalizing of research results
Next, we will make more concrete plans to fit into this overall framework emphasizing the following points.

a. Open doors
b. Activities of young researchers
c. Integration of research on both fieldwork and historical materials

More specifically, the research conducted will be as open as possible and we will invite as many researchers as our budget will allow to give seminars. We also welcome any and all participation. In addition, we will actively invite foreign researchers who are based in Japan and in foreign countries to participate in this Project.

On June 28 the first research seminar was held and Project Leader SATO Tsugitaka and Unit Leader GOTO Akira delivered the keynote addresses. We then split into two groups (Group A: Muslims in Everyday Life and Group B: Islamic Civilization in Human History) for research seminars. Both groups heard the information in the keynote speeches and freely discussed plans for future research. The content of these discussions will be posted on the home page.

This year we will invite Abdul-Rahim Ali M. Ibarhim (Vice Chancellor, International University of Africa, Sudan) whose theme of research is the Islamic movement in Africa and we plan to hold an international seminar on this theme.

Message from the Group Leader:
Research Group 5-A: Muslims in Everyday Life
Acting Group Leader: AKAHORI Masayuki (Sophia University)

The theme of Group 5-A is Muslims in Everyday Life. This involves considering the various ways in which Islamic belief is practiced and expressed in daily life through fieldwork. At the same time we will try to look at the reality of Islam as a flexible, dynamic phenomenon, avoiding an inflexible understanding of Islam through stereotyped interpretations.

In addition to giving careful consideration to the diverse nature of daily life and the variety which comes from different regions and different historical periods, we will also assign great importance to the diversity of fields and approaches that a researcher can have. We hope to create something of value by continual integration and isolation of multi-disciplinary approaches. In order to do this, we will approach our research keeping a few key phrases in mind. The methods we will use include observation of the many facets of daily life in the Islamic world and exposing ourselves to many different themes and many different researchers. The key words we currently have in mind are mobility and networks, local contexts, ways of life, semiotics in daily life and fashion and symbols in daily life, but these may change as the research progresses. We will mainly make our results available through our research seminars, but we will find many other ways to do so. We hope that you are looking forward to seeing what will appear where anthropology, social science, history, art and literature etc. related to the Muslims of the world come together.

Part of this group's activities is also to actively take part in the research of other groups and encourage cooperation with other groups. We hope to pursue new ideas without spreading ourselves too thin, and to create new points of view in the study of daily life. We would appreciate the free and active participation of many researchers and students.

Message from the Group Leader:
Research Group 5-B: Islamic Civilization in Human History
Group Leader: YUKAWA Takeshi (Keio University)

As you can tell by the abbreviated name of this Project (Islamic Area Studies=IAS), the two key phrases for this Project are "the Islamic World" and "Area Studies". Here, I would like to express my ideas on the relationship between Area Studies and Historical Studies.

The term Area Studies has a very contemporary ring to it. In fact, many of the work on Area Studies covers the politics, economics and society of a particular area. The next most popular category of work is geographical studies and ecological studies. Both of these categories focus on the current status of an area and historical research is usually seen as belonging within a different framework. However, Area Studies is an attempt to understand a particular area from various points of view and it must cross the boundaries of academic disciplines and have an interdisciplinary character to it. In addition, seeing an area in an interdisciplinary way is not only for the purpose of getting an overall view of one aspect of the present. It is also important to see how the aspect has changed over time. Not only modern or contemporary history, but historical studies of earlier periods are connected with the present in many ways. In addition, when seen from the point of view of the researcher, the fact that we ourselves are living in today's world and we have a relationship with the areas studied is, in and of itself, related to the contemporary character of Area Studies. When viewed in this way, we see that Historical Studies and Area Studies are not very different at all. Rather, we see that the role of Historical Studies within Area Studies is very important.

Historical Studies is essentially a field which, while requiring some use of techniques, should not exclusively use its own methodology. Rather, it should be conducted by using the methodology of related fields. It may even be said that Historical Studies is basically an interdisciplinary field. For this reason, Historical Studies fits in well with Area Studies.

With these things in mind, we in Group B would like to conduct research which includes a wide variety of areas and periods and many disciplines. Our current theme is "Contact with Other Cultures". Here, we would like to use the broadest possible definition of contact with other cultures. The otherness in "Other Cultures" should not only be taken to mean that which comes from a foreign country or from outside the group. It should also be taken to include factors with different characteristics within the same cultural area. "Culture" should not be understood in the narrow sense. We would like to use it to cover all of the various factors and phenomena which occur in human societies. In addition, the concept of "Contact" will also be thought of in its widest sense to include various types of phenomena's both physical and non-physical.

By defining "Contact with Other Cultures", we will be able to see the historical phenomena in the Islamic world in a different way and surround ourselves with a wider variety of historians. These are our plans and expectations for this Project.


Research Unit 6: Source Materials for the Study of Islamic Civilization
The Toyo Bunko (The Oriental Library)

The goal of this group is to collect basic materials for research on the Islamic world and to create a network of libraries. We will cooperate with Group 3-C, Source Materials for the Study of the Contemporary Muslim World and support this Project by collecting related materials and creating an information network of source materials.

We will systematically gather in the Toyo Bunko (The Oriental Library) all kinds of original materials written in the original languages by people in the Islamic Area which are necessary for research on the basic structure of the politics, economics and culture of the Islamic area.

The Toyo Bunko was the first organization in Japan to begin collecting original materials related to the Islamic area and it has the largest collection of such materials in Japan as well as its own methods of cataloging. In this Project, by gathering materials related to pre-modern times in the Toyo Bunko, we would like to make it a center for the provision of basic materials for Islamic Area Studies.

We will:
(i) Purchase materials in Arabic, Persian, Turkish and Central Asian languages every year according to plan.
(ii) Send researchers to collect materials in areas where materials related to Islam have not previously been sufficiently gathered in Japanese libraries such as Southeast Asia, South Asia, Central Asia and China.
(iii) Gather books, manuscripts and historical documents mainly in the original languages.

b) Improvement of the database and on-line service for bibliographic information
Materials in the original languages of Islamic areas including Arabic mostly use non-Roman characters. Therefore it has been difficult to use library cataloging systems in an integrated manner because library cards and records have been made using different transliteration systems. Recently, it has become possible to use other writing systems including Arabic characters on personal computers. Through bibliographic information databases and the development of a system for conducting online searches using the internet, in the future we hope that research organizations and libraries which have materials on Islamic areas will be linked, to assist in the collection and retrieval of materials.

We will:
(i) Conduct a survey of libraries in Japan which have materials in the original languages of Islamic areas to find what materials they have, how they are cataloged, and devise ways to cooperate with and aid them.
(ii) Create database catalogs of materials in Arabic, Turkish and Persian and an on-line search system.
(iii) Conduct seminars to educate specialist Middle Eastern language librarians

c) Making collected materials available for use
By constructing catalogs of collected materials, we will make the materials quickly available for use through electronic media such as CD-ROM and the internet. In addition, for manuscripts and historical documents, we will hold research seminars and source reading seminars to educate younger researchers.

We will:
(i) Catalog the historical materials collected by computer within a year of purchase and make the information available through the internet or other electronic media, and have the materials themselves available for study at the Toyo Bunko.
(ii) Invite foreign specialist researchers to give source reading seminars for manuscripts and historical documents.

Plan for 1997
We will:
a) Survey libraries in Japan which have materials in the original languages of the Islamic areas (July-Sept. 1997)
b) Hold a manuscript material research seminar
c) Hold a research seminar on creating a catalog database for non-Roman character languages
d) Send scholars to gather materials in South Asia and China

Message from the Unit Leader:
Unit Leader: NAGATA Yuzo (Meiji University)

The task of our research unit which is located at the Toyo Bunko is the collection of source materials. This work is not particularly unique or groundbreaking. Up until now, our budget has not been sufficient and our most important job is to find a way to conduct the collection systematically according to plan. Next we must convert the collected materials into usable information. The Toyo Bunko has been constructing a catalog system. The point that I must keep in mind is that my role is to provide a convenient way for many people including those participating in this Project to use the collected materials.

The materials to be gathered this time include not only published materials. This time, manuscripts and documents are also targeted and this is expected to bring on several problems. Finding a way to overcome these problems is the work of this research unit. For example, the way we solve problems concerning possession rights, negotiations with regional governments and organizations and methods of collection will determine the quality of our work.

We hope to hold research seminars concerning how to improve the techniques for study of the materials, training in the deciphering of the manuscripts and education to provide palaeographic knowledge, in order that the manuscripts and documents do not simply gather dust.

Top of Page

5) List of Researchers

Unit 1 / Unit 2 / Unit 3 / Unit 4 / Unit 5 / Unit 6

Project Management Unit

  • SATO Tsugitaka (Project leader):
    The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology
    Arab-Islamic History
  • ASAMI Yasushi: Information System and Unit 4
  • GOTO Akira: Leader of Unit 5
  • HANEDA Masashi: International Exchange
    The University of Tokyo, Institute of Oriental Culture
    Iranian History
  • HAYASHI Kayoko: Information System and Announcements
    Tokyo University of Foreign Studies
    Ottoman Studies
  • KISAICHI Masatoshi: Announcements & Publications and Unit 2
  • KOMATSU Hisao: General Affairs and Unit 1
  • MATSUBARA Masatake: Leader of Unit 3
  • MIURA Toru: Announcements & Publications and Unit 6
  • MURAI Yoshinori: Leader of Unit 2
  • NAGASAWA Eiji: Planning and Unit 1
  • OKABE Atsuyuki: Leader of Unit 4
  • TAKESHITA Masataka: Leader of Unit 1
  • YUKAWA Takeshi: International Exchange and Unit 5

Unit 1: Thought and Politics in the Islamic World

  • TAKESHITA Masataka (Unit leader)
    The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology
    History of Islamic Thought

Group A: Contemporary Thought in the Islamic World

  • KOSUGI Yasushi (leader)
    International University of Japan, Graduate School of International Relations
    Islamic Studies
  • HACHIOSHI Makoto
    Tokyo University of Foreign Studies
    Modern History of Iran
  • KOMATSU Hisao
    The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology
    Modern History of Central Asia
  • NAKAMURA Kojiro
    Obirin University, School of International Studies
    Islamic Studies

Group B: Muslim Problems in International Relations

  • IGARASHI Takeshi (leader)
    The University of Tokyo, Faculty of Law
    U.S. Policy toward the Middle East
  • ISHIDA Atsushi
    Tokyo Metropolitan University, Faculty of Law
    International Relations
  • ISHIDA Ken
    Chiba University, Faculty of Law
    History of International Politics
    The University of the Air
    Japanese Relations with the Middle East
  • TATEYAMA Ryoji
    National Defense Academy, School of Social Sciences
    International Relations in the Middle East
  • SADRIA Mojtaba
    Chuo University, Faculty of Policy Studies
    Theory of International Relations

Group C: State and Law in the Islamic World

  • SUZUKI Tadashi (leader)
    The University of Tokyo, Institute of Oriental Culture
    Ottoman Studies
  • MORIMOTO Kosei
    Early Islamic History
    The University of Tokyo, Institute of Oriental Culture
    Socio-Economic History of Modern Egypt
  • YAJIMA Hikoichi
    Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa
    Commercial History of the Islamic World
  • YANAGIHASHI Hiroyuki
    Tohoku University, Graduate School of International Cultural Studies
    Islamic Positive Law

Unit 2: Society and Economy in the Islamic World

  • MURAI Yoshinori (Unit leader)
    Sophia University, Institute of Asian Cultures
    Socio-Economy of Southeast Asia

Group A: Islam and Social Development

  • MIZUSHIMA Tsukasa (leader)
    Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa
    Socio-Economic History of South Asia
  • KURITA Yoshiko
    Chiba University, Faculty of Letters
    Modern History of the Middle East and North Africa
  • MATSUMOTO Kotaro
    Tokyo Keizai University, Faculty of Communication Studies
    Studies of Contemporary China
  • MIYAJI Kazuo
    Keisen Jogakuen College
    State and Society in Maghrib Countries
  • MIZUNO Kosuke
    Kyoto University, Center for Southeast Asian Studies
    Indonesian Economy

Group B: Economics and the Contemporary Islamic World

  • KIMURA Yoshihiro (leader)
    Tohoku University, Graduate School of International Cultural Studies
    Area Studies of the Middle East and Central Asia
  • HARA Yonosuke
    The University of Tokyo, Institute of Oriental Culture
    Southeast Asian Economies
  • SAKAMOTO Tsutomu
    Keio University, Faculty of Letters
    Economic History of the Modern Middle East
  • SHIMIZU Manabu
    Utsunomiya University, Faculty of International Studies
    Economic Development in West Asia

Group C: Research Trends in Islamic Area Studies

  • KISAICHI Masatoshi (leader)
    Sophia University, Institute of Asian Cultures
    Maghrib-Arabian Studies
  • HAZAMA Yasushi
    Institute of Developing Economies, Development Studies Department
    Comparative Politics
  • KOBAYASHI Yasuko
    Aichi Gakusen University, Faculty of Business Administration
    Modern Indonesian History
  • KOMAKI Shohei
    Sophia University, Institute of Asian Cultures
    Modern Iranian History
  • KUROKI Hidemitsu
    Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa
    Modern History of Syria and Lebanon
  • TONAGA Yasushi
    Toyo University, Faculty of Letters
    Islamic Thought

Unit 3: Nations, Regions and Islam

  • MATSUBARA Masatake (Unit leader)
    National Museum of Ethnology, The Japan Center for Area Studies
    Social Anthropology

Group A: Nation States and Muslim Identities

  • KATO Hiroshi (leader)
    Hitotsubashi University, Faculty of Economics
    Socio-Economic History of the Middle East
  • ARAI Masami
    Tokyo University of Foreign Studies
    Modern History of the Ottoman Empire
  • HAMASHITA Takeshi
    The University of Tokyo, Institute of Oriental Culture
    State Power and Socio-Economic Structure in East Asia
  • KAJITA Takamichi
    Hitotsubashi University, Faculty of Social Sciences
    Global Sociology
  • KAWASHIMA Midori
    Sophia University, Institute of Asian Cultures
    Philippine Politics
  • SHINMEN Yasushi
    Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa
    Central Asian History

Group B: Contemporary Muslims and Cultural Conflicts

  • YAMAUCHI Masayuki (leader)
    The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences
    Area Studies of the Muslim World
  • NAITO Masanori
    Hitotsubashi University, Faculty of Social Sciences
    Politics and Social Change in Modern Turkey
  • NOTOJI Masako
    The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences
    American Area Studies
  • OHTSUKA Kazuo
    Tokyo Metropolitan University, Department of Social Anthropology
    Ethnography of the Middle East
  • WUNG Ke
    Kobe University, Faculty of Cross-Cultural Studies
    Modern History of China

Group C: Source Materials for the Study of the Contemporary Muslim World

  • USUKI Akira (leader)
    National Museum of Ethnology, The Japan Center for Area Studies
    Middle Eastern Area Studies
  • ABE Kenichi
    National Museum of Ethnology, The Japan Center for Area Studies
    Area Studies of the Southeast Asia
    National Museum of Ethnology, The Japan Center for Area Studies,
    Philippine Studies
  • HIROSUE Masashi
    Tenri University, Department of Indonesian Studies
    Socio-Religious History of Indonesia
  • IIZUKA Masato
    Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa
    Islamic Studies
  • KURODA Takashi
    Tohoku University, Graduate School of International Cultural Studies
    Modern History of Iran
  • OBIYA Chika
    The Japan Center for Area Studies, National Museum of Ethnology
    Modern History of Central Asia

Unit 4: Geographic Information Systems for Islamic Area Studies

  • OKABE Atsuyuki (Unit leader)
    The University of Tokyo, Department of Urban Engineering
    Spatial Information Science
  • ASAMI Yasushi
    The University of Tokyo, Department of Urban Engineering
    Housing and Environmental Design
  • JINNAI Hidenobu
    Hosei University, Department of Engineering
    History of Italian Architecture
  • SAKURAI Yumio
    The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology
    Historical Area Studies
  • SADAHIRO Yukio
    The University of Tokyo, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology
    Geographic Information Systems
  • SHIBASAKI Ryosuke
    The University of Tokyo, Institute of Industrial Science
    GIS, Remote Sensing

Unit 5: Islamic History and Culture

  • GOTO Akira (Unit leader)
    The University of Tokyo, Institute of Oriental Culture
    Early Islamic World History

Group A: Muslims in Everyday Life

  • KATAKURA Motoko (leader)
    Chuo University, Faculty of Policy Studies
    Ethnographical Approach to the Islamic World
  • AKAHORI Masayuki
    Sophia University, Institute of Asian Cultures
    Cultural Anthropology of the Middle East
  • OHTOSHI Tetsuya
    Kyushu University, Faculty of Letters
    Middle Eastern Social History
  • TAKAKI Keiko
    Obirin University, School of International Studies
  • WAZAKI Haruka
    Japan Women's University, Faculty of Integrated Arts and Social Sciences
    Urban Anthropology of Africa
    University of East Asia, Graduate School of Integrated Science and Arts
    Turkish-Islamic Art History

Group B: Islamic Civilization in Human History

  • YUKAWA Takeshi (leader)
    Keio Gijuku University, Faculty of Commerce
    Arab-Islamic History
    The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology
    Socio-Economic History of Late Imperial China
  • MANO Eiji
    Kyoto University, Graduate School of Letters
    History of Central Asia
  • AKAZATO Nariaki
    The Unversity of Tokyo, Institute of Oriental Culture
    Modern History of South Asia
  • SUGITA Hideaki
    The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences
    Comparative Literature and Culture
  • TAKAYAMA Hiroshi
    The University of Tokyo, Faculty of Letters
    Medieval European History

Unit 6: Source Materials for the Study of Islamic Civilization

  • NAGATA Yuzo (Unit leader)
    Meiji University, Faculty of Letters
    Social and Economic History of the Ottoman Empire
  • KITAMURA Hajime
    The Toyo Bunko
    Tibetan Language
  • MIURA Toru
    Ochanomizu University, Faculty of Letters and Education
    Social History of Arabic-Islamic Region
  • ONA Yasuyuki
    Aoyama Gakuin University, Department of History
    History of the Mughal Empire
  • SHIMIZU Kosuke
    Kyushu University, Faculty of Letters
    History of Iran and the Turks
  • SHIMO Hirotoshi
    The Toyo Bunko, Research Department
    History of the Mongol Empire
  • UMEMURA Hiroshi
    Chuo University, Faculty of Policy Studies
    Inner Asian History

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